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Как написать введение?

Введение дает возможность экзаменатору с первых предложений получить представление о вашем умении писать эссе. Постарайтесь произвести хорошее впечатление уже с самого начала.

Конечно, если у вас много времени, вы можете потратить несколько минут для обдумывания первых предложений, но на экзамене все-таки лучше пользоваться отработанными вами заготовками. Ниже мы дадим варианты подходящих клише для введения, не стесняйтесь их использовать - это показывает, что вы все-таки готовились к написанию IELTS эссе. Тем не менее, будет замечательно, если вы создадите что-нибудь свое.

СПОСОБ 1

Самое простое - перефразировать каждое предложение текста самого задания и «слегка» его расширить. Например,

1) TASK: We are surrounded by advertising. Some people think that it is good because it gives us

choice as consumers, but others argue that it makes people selfish and greedy for more and more goods. Do you think there should be less advertising? (G, A)

We see and hear advertising everywhere.

It has positive effect, as it makes us better informed about various goods and services.

However, we should not forget about its negative influence on consumers.

Should there be less advertising?

We are surrounded by advertising. ^

Some people think that it is good because it ^ gives us choice as consumers, but...

... others argue that it makes people selfish ^ and greedy for more and more goods.

Do you think there should be less advertis- ^ ing?

2) TASK: Television, newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to the

personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? (G)

The private lives of famous people are too often featured in the mass media. They inform us about the families of public figures or celebrities, their lifestyles, preferences, or scandals connected with them.

Should there be less attention to the personal aspects of these famous people? Or is all this information necessary for the public, and so can be justified?

Television, newspapers, magazines, and ^ other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities

Do you agree or disagree with the follow- ^ ing statement?

СПОСОБ 2

Существуют разные клише («скелеты») для написания введения. Вот некоторые из них:

• It may indeed be true to say that (+ statement from the task); what, however are the factors involved? ^ It may indeed be true to say that mass media pay too much attention to the personal Iife of famous people; what however are the factors involved?

• It may indeed be the case that (+ statement from the task); this issue, however requires further analysis. ^ It may indeed be the case that our mass media pay too much attention to the personal lives offamous people; this issue, however requires further analysis.

• ... is one of the most controversial issues of our time. What are the arguments that need to be considered? ^ Should there be less advertising or not is one of the most controversial issues of our time.

What are the arguments that need to be considered?

• ... has/have been an important part of many cultures/life for many years now. What are the reasons for this, and what changes/improvements are likely or possible in the future? ^ Advertising has been an important part of our life for many years now. What are the reasons for this and what negative influence on consumers is possible in the future?

• ... has/have been ...ing for many years now. Has this had generally beneficial effects, or have they been largely negative? ^ Advertising has been surrounding us for many years now. Has this had generally beneficial effect, or has this been largely negative?

Считается, что хорошее введение имеет 4 части:

1. Обозначает тему - Introduces the topic

2. Поясняет, почему эта тема важна для обсуждения - States why the topic is important

3. Указывает на возможное различие в мнениях о проблеме - States that there is a difference of opinion about this topic

4. Описывает, как построено эссе, и четко называет основное утверждение автора - Describes how the assignment will be structured and clearly states the writer's main premise

СПОСОБ 3

Теперь давайте рассмотрим, как можно пользоваться «универсальной» заготовкой, на примере введения к эссе на тему “Marine parks for sea mammals should be forbidden, because it is inhuman to keep these animals in captivity. What is your opinion on the issue?” (А)

The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue. This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions.

Наконец, предлагаем вам прочитать всё эссе[5] и посмотреть, насколько введение согласуется с основной частью.

The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue. This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions.

It has been argued that dolphin parks provide the only opportunity for much of the public to see marine mammals. Most citizens, so this argument goes, live in continental cities and never get to see these animals. It is claimed that marine parks allow the average person to appreciate our marine wildlife. However, dolphins, whales and seals can be viewed in the wild at a number of places on the ocean coast. In fact, there are more places where they can be seen in the wild than places where they can be seen in captivity.

Some scientists contend that we need marine parks for scientific research. They argue that much of our knowledge of marine mammals comes from studies which were undertaken at marine parks. The knowledge which is obtained at marine parks, so this argument goes, can be useful for planning for the conservation of marine mammal species. However, park research is only useful for understanding captive animals and is not useful for learning about animals in the wild. Dolphin and whale biology changes in marine park conditions. Their diets are different, they have significantly lower life spans and they are more prone to disease. In addition, marine mammals in dolphin parks are trained and this means that their patterns of social behaviour are changed. Therefore research undertaken at marine parks is generally not reliable.

It is a common opinion that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists. This position goes on to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia, New Zealand or the USA if the parks were closed down. Indeed, surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to visit places like Seaworld. Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and cement pools. They can see animals in those conditions in their own countries. Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the ugly concrete marine park venues.

Dolphin parks are unnecessary and cruel. The dolphins and whales in these parks are kept in very small, cramped ponds, whereas in the wild they are used to roaming long distances across the seas. Furthermore, the concrete walls of the pools interfere with the animals’ sonar systems of communication. In addition, keeping them in pools is a terrible restriction of the freedom of fellow creatures that may have very high levels of intelligence and sophisticated language ability. Moreover, there are many documented cases of marine mammals helping humans who are in danger at sea or helping fisherman with their work.

In conclusion, these parks should be closed, or at the very least, no new animals should be captured for marine parks in the future. Our society is no longer prepared to tolerate unnecessary cruelty to animals for science and entertainment. If we continue with our past crimes against these creatures we will be remembered as cruel and inhuman by the generations of the future.

(614 words)

Exam hints:

You must avoid repeating the exact words of the task topic. If you repeat the words, you can gain no marks for the introduction, since they are not your words. The examiner will simply ignore them. If you paraphrase, you are displaying your language skills.

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Источник: Саливон А.Б., Рева Н.И.. ГОТОВИМСЯ К СДАЧЕ ЭКЗАМЕНА IELTS: Writing Essays: учебно-методическое пособие. - Владивосток: Изд-во ВГУЭС, 2008. - 70 с.. 2008

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